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Citation Quick Reference: APA

Shows how to correctly cite resources using nine common citation styles and reference management software packages

American Psychological Association (APA) Citation Style

Print Book 


Johnson, L. K. (2000). Bombs, bugs, drugs and thugs: intelligence and America's quest for security. New York and London: New York University Press.

In-Text Reference:

(Johnson, 2000)

Print Journal Article 


Adda, J. & Ottaviani, M. (2005). The transition to digital television. Economic Policy, 20, 159-209.

In-Text Reference:

(Adda & Ottaviani, 2005)

Electronic Book  


Bornstein, M. H. & Lamb, M. E. (Eds.). (1999). Developmental psychology: an advanced textbook (4th ed.). [NetLibrary Reader version]. Retrieved from

In-Text Reference:

(Bornstein & Lamb, 1999)

Journal Article in Electronic Database


Sadeh, A., Keinan, G., Daon, K. (2004). Effects of stress on sleep: the moderating role of coping style. Health Psychology, 23, 542-5. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.23.5.542

In-Text Reference:

(Sadeh, Keinan, & Daon, 2004)

Web Site


National Institute of Mental Health. (2001). Teenage brain: A work in progress. Retrieved from

In-Text Reference:

(National Institute of Mental Health, 2001)

APA Basics

APA style was established by the American Psychological Association.

APA is normally used in the sciences, including sociology and psychology.

Comparison of APA, MLA, and Chicago Styles

For a comparison of APA, MLA, and Chicago styles of citing various media, click on the link below.

APA Style in Other Media

For examples of citations of newspaper articles, TV shows, videos, and other resources, click on the link below.