The process by which an academic journal passes a paper submitted for publication to independent experts (professionals) for comments on its suitability and worth; refereeing.
Pertaining to, or characterizing, a scholar; befitting, or natural to, a scholar; learned, erudite.
Of a scientific or other academic work: that is or has been examined by an expert in order to assess its suitability for publication. Also (of an academic journal): that requires submitted articles to be assessed by an expert before they are accepted for publication.
(Definitions from the Oxford English Dictionary)